Netskope named a Leader in the 2022 Gartner® Magic Quadrant™ for Security Service Edge. Get the Report.

  • Plataforma

    Visibilidad inigualable y protección contra amenazas y datos en tiempo real en la nube privada de seguridad más grande del mundo.

  • Productos

    Los productos de Netskope se basan en Netskope Security Cloud.

Netskope ofrece una estrategia de seguridad cloud moderna, con capacidades unificadas para los datos y protección frente a amenazas, además de un acceso privado seguro.

Explora nuestra plataforma

Netskope ha sido nombrado Líder en el Informe del Cuadrante Mágico de Gartner™ 2022 en SSE

Obtenga el informe

Cambie a los servicios de seguridad en la nube líderes del mercado con una latencia mínima y una alta fiabilidad.

Más información

Prevenga las amenazas que a menudo eluden otras soluciones de seguridad utilizando un marco SSE de un solo paso.

Más información

Soluciones de confianza cero para implementaciones de SSE y SASE

Más información

Netskope hace posible un proceso seguro, rápido y con inteligencia cloud para la adopción de los servicios en la nube, las aplicaciones y la infraestructura de nube pública.

Más información
  • Satisfacción de los Clientes

    Asegure su viaje de transformación digital y aproveche al máximo sus aplicaciones en la nube, web y privadas.

  • Soporte al cliente

    Compromiso y soporte proactivo para optimizar su entorno de Netskope y acelerar su éxito.

Confíe en Netskope para que le ayude a hacer frente a las amenazas en evolución, a los nuevos riesgos, a los cambios tecnológicos, a los cambios organizativos y de red, y a los nuevos requisitos normativos.

Más información

Tenemos ingenieros cualificados en todo el mundo, con distintos ámbitos de conocimiento sobre seguridad en la nube, redes, virtualización, entrega de contenidos y desarrollo de software, listos para ofrecerle asistencia técnica de calidad en todo momento.

Más información
  • Recursos

    Obtenga más información sobre cómo Netskope puede ayudarle a proteger su viaje hacia la nube.

  • Blog

    Descubra cómo Netskope permite la transformación de la seguridad y las redes a través del servicio de seguridad (SSE).

  • Eventos & Workshops

    Manténgase a la vanguardia de las últimas tendencias de seguridad y conéctese con sus pares.

  • Security Defined

    Todo lo que necesitas saber en nuestra enciclopedia de ciberseguridad.

Podcast Security Visionaries

Episodio extra: La importancia de Security Service Edge (SSE)

Reproducir el pódcast

Lea lo último sobre cómo Netskope puede hacer posible el viaje de confianza cero y SASE a través de las capacidades de SSE.

Lea el blog

Netskope en RSA 2022

Conozca y hable con los especialistas en seguridad de Netskope en RSA.

Más información

¿Qué es Security Service Edge (SSE)?

Explore el lado de la seguridad de SASE, el futuro de la red y la protección en la nube.

Más información
  • Empresa

    Le ayudamos a mantenerse a la vanguardia de los desafíos de seguridad de la nube, los datos y la red.

  • Por qué Netskope

    La transformación de la nube y el trabajo desde cualquier lugar han cambiado la forma en que debe funcionar la seguridad.

  • Liderazgo

    Nuestro equipo de liderazgo está firmemente comprometido a hacer todo lo necesario para que nuestros clientes tengan éxito.

  • Partners

    Nos asociamos con líderes en seguridad para ayudarlo a asegurar su viaje a la nube.

Netskope posibilita el futuro del trabajo.

Descubra más

Netskope está redefiniendo la seguridad de la nube, los datos y la red para ayudar a las organizaciones a aplicar los principios de Zero Trust para proteger los datos.

Más información

Pensadores, constructores, soñadores, innovadores. Juntos, ofrecemos soluciones de seguridad en la nube de vanguardia para ayudar a nuestros clientes a proteger sus datos y usuarios.

Conozca a nuestro equipo

La estrategia de venta centrada en el partner de Netskope permite a nuestros canales maximizar su expansión y rentabilidad y, al mismo tiempo, transformar la seguridad de su empresa.

Más información
Blog Threat Labs Targeted Attack BadWolf Exploits Office Vulnerabilities to Exfiltrate Data
Dec 14 2017

Targeted Attack BadWolf Exploits Office Vulnerabilities to Exfiltrate Data

Introduction

On 12th December 2017, Netskope Threat Research Labs identified a very interesting file named “New Order.docx”. Analysis of the file determined that it was not a regular malware which are usually distributed via spam campaigns. Based on the the nature of the attack, the vulnerabilities being exploited by the attackers and the other TTPs used,  we suspect this to be a very targeted attack and are calling it BadWolf-1. The Word document, disguised as an important company update, used two recently reported Microsoft Office vulnerabilities (CVE-2017-0199 & CVE-2017-11882) with multi-level payload downloads upon exploitation. At this moment, the intent of the attack seems to be for exfiltrating data from the victim. Interestingly, this data was being emailed out to a specific Google Gmail account by directly connecting from the victim’s machine to Google SMTP server. The credentials of the attackers Google Gmail account were exposed during the analysis, but the attackers had 2-step verification turned on to access their Gmail account which requires both the credentials and also a unique code sent as a text message to a mobile device. Netskope Threat Protection detects the weaponized document as Trojan.Doc.Downloader.AGE.

Attack Kill Chain

The following figure depicts the attack kill chain.

Analysis of documents

Attackers used a crafted document disguised as an important company update that exploits a vulnerability in Microsoft Office and Wordpad. It was assigned the reference as CVE-2017-0199 and was patched by Microsoft in April 2017. The vulnerability exists in the OLE (Windows object linking and embedding) interface of Microsoft Office. Earlier in the year, we blogged about the same vulnerability being distributed by Godzilla botnet. At the time of the Godzilla Botnet analysis, this was a 0-day attack.

On exploiting the vulnerability, it connects to URL “hxxps://deonn[.]com/kcc[.]doc” to download another malicious document file as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Reference to the URL for downloading the second malicious document

This new malicious downloaded file is an RTF document that then exploits another vulnerability in Microsoft Office and was assigned the reference as CVE-2017-11882. This vulnerability was recently discovered and patched by Microsoft in November 2017. It is a stack buffer overflow vulnerability that exists in the equation editor of Microsoft. Equation editor was compiled and last updated in November 2000. Equation editor works as a COM service and spawns its own process so DEP and ASLR can’t block the exploit as the binary is not compiled to support these features.

Figure 2: Equation OLE object in malicious RTF file

Figure 2 shows a snippet of the RTF file containing the equation OLE object. After extracting the OLE object from the file we can see an equation native stream in the OLE object as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Equation Native stream in ole object

Equation native stream starts with its header followed by MTEF(MathType) data. MTEF format has its own header, followed by MTEF records as shown in Figure 4. The vulnerability exists in the font name of MTEF record. As there is no check on the length of the font name, a long font name overwrites the return address on the stack.

Figure 4: CVE-2017-11882 vulnerability (MTEF header & records)

After taking control over the return address, the attacker used the shellcode to launch mshta.exe to download an .hta file as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Shellcode to execute mshta.exe using WinExec

The .hta file further downloads a binary ‘kc.exe’ as shown in Figures 6 & 7 respectively.

Figure 6: Obfuscated content of HTA file

Figure 7: De-obfuscated content of HTA file

Analysis of executables:

“kc.exe” is a .net binary, compiled on 4th March 2017. On execution it copies itself to ‘C:\Users\admin\Documents\’ with name “javass.exe” and spawn a new process of itself. After that, javass.exe spawns a new process of itself in suspended mode and modifies the memory of the new process with unpacked code. The unpacked code then extracts a new binary from its resource section and stores it at ‘C:\Users\admin\AppData\Local\Temp\’ with name “yaq.exe”. The newly created file “yaq.exe” on execution connects to URL “hxxps://directupload[.]site/PWD.jpg” to download another binary and stores it with the  name “contemp.exe”. The binary is associated with  the LaZagne project (https://github.com/AlessandroZ/LaZagne), an open source project to retrieve passwords from local computers.  

After extracting and storing the content of “javass.exe” from memory we were able to decompile the binary. The main functionalities of the executable includes:

Keyboard monitoring:

Javass.exe has keylogging functionality as shown in Figure 8. It uses SetWindowsHookExA API to apply hook on the keyboard events.

Figure 8: Key Logging Keyboard Hooks

Password dump using LaZagne project binary:

javass.exe spawns yaq.exe to download LaZagne project binary as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: yaq.exe downloading contemp.exe

After download, yaq.exe spawns the LaZagne project binary to extract the passwords from the system as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: yaq.exe spawns contemp.exe

Yaq.exe also uses anti-analysis technique by using IsDebuggerPresent as shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11: yaq.exe IsDebuggerPresent check.

If it detects the presence of a debugger, it will display a message as shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12: yaq.exe debugging error message

Anti-VM checks:

Javass.exe apply several anti-VM checks to detect the virtual machine as shown in Figures 13 & 14 respectively.

Figure 13: Anti-VM Checks for VMware, VirtualBox, and Sandboxie

Figure 14: Anti-VM detection using bios, product name, and video card versions.

Screenshot capturing:

Javass.exe captures the screenshots and sends them from a Gmail account as shown in Figure 15. It stores these screenshots under c:\programdata\windowsapp1\windowsapp1\0.0.0.0\’ directory.

Figure 15: screen capture code excerpt

Data exfiltration:

After capturing the information, javass.exe sends the data to a Gmail account as shown in Figure 16.

Figure 16: Exfiltrating data directly to attacker’s Gmail account.

Persistence:

Javass.exe creates its shortcut link under ‘C:\Users\admin\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup’  to execute at startup as shown in Figure 17.

Figure 17: javass.exe startup entry

Clearing traces:

The attacker uses several techniques to clear the traces from the system. yaq.exe deletes the contemp.exe password dump utility after extracting the passwords as shown in Figure 18.

Figure 18: delete contemp.exe

Javass.exe deletes the zone identifier files to remove the internet activity traces on the system as shown in Figure 19.

Figure 19: Delete zone transfer files

Connecting the Dots

An internet search based on the variable names points to a development forum “dev-point.com” that is written in Arabic. There is some similarity in the code as well that is posted on dev-point.com. However, at this point in time we are not sure about the attack group behind this targeted attack but tools such as LaZagne have been used in various APT attacks by different attacker groups.

Conclusion

With new strains of malware being released everyday, traditional security defenses are constantly finding it difficult to detect and protect against APT attacks that take/follow a low-and-slow approach. A strong defense against APTs must have in-depth detection and analysis capabilities across all phases of the attack lifecycle. Netskope Advanced Threat Protection with its unique cloud vantage point combined with multi-layered threat detection and remediation capabilities offers customers a cloud scale platform that understands, protects and responds to sophisticated attacks.