Netskope wurde im Gartner Magic Quadrant für Security Service Edge 2022 als führendes Unternehmen ausgezeichnet. Report abrufen.

  • Produkte

    Netskope-Produkte basieren auf der Netskope Security Cloud.

  • Plattform

    Unübertroffene Transparenz und Daten- und Bedrohungsschutz in Echtzeit in der weltweit größten privaten Sicherheits-Cloud.

Netskope wurde 2022 zum Marktführer im Gartner Magic Quadrant™ for SSE Report ernannt

Report abrufen Netskope Produktübersicht
Netskope führend bei SSE in Gartner MQ 2022

Netskope bietet einen modernen Cloud-Security-Stack mit vereinheitlichten Funktionen für Daten- und Bedrohungsschutz sowie sicherem privaten Zugriff.

Erkunden Sie unsere Plattform
Städtische Metropole aus der Vogelperspektive

Steigen Sie auf marktführende Cloud-Security Service mit minimaler Latenz und hoher Zuverlässigkeit um.

Mehr Informationen
Beleuchtete Schnellstraße mit Serpentinen durch die Berge

Verhindern Sie Bedrohungen, die häufig anderen Sicherheitslösungen entgehen, mithilfe eines SSE-Frameworks mit single-pass Architektur

Mehr Informationen
Gewitter über einem Großstadtgebiet

Zero-Trust-Lösungen für SSE- und SASE-Deployments

Mehr Informationen
Bootsfahrt auf dem offenen Meer

Netskope ermöglicht einen sicheren, cloudintelligenten und schnellen Weg zur Einführung von Cloud-Diensten, Apps und Public-Cloud-Infrastrukturen.

Mehr Informationen
Windkraftanlagen entlang einer Klippe
  • Customer Success

    Sichern Sie Ihren Weg zur digitalen Transformation und holen Sie das Beste aus Ihren Cloud-, Web- und privaten Anwendungen heraus.

  • Kunden-Support

    Proaktiver Support und Engagement zur Optimierung Ihrer Netskope-Umgebung und zur Beschleunigung Ihres Erfolgs.

  • Schulung und Zertifizierung

    Netskope-Schulungen helfen Ihnen ein Experte für Cloud-Sicherheit zu werden.

Vertrauen Sie darauf, dass Netskope Sie bei dem Schutz vor neuen Bedrohungen, neuer Risiken und technologischer Veränderungen unterstützt. Ebenso bei organisatorischen sowie Compliance Anforderungen.

Mehr Informationen
Lächelnde Frau mit Brille schaut aus dem Fenster

Wir verfügen weltweit über qualifizierte Ingenieure mit unterschiedlichem Hintergrund in den Bereichen Cloud-Sicherheit, Netzwerke, Virtualisierung, Inhaltsbereitstellung und Softwareentwicklung, die bereit sind, Ihnen zeitnahe und qualitativ hochwertige technische Unterstützung zu bieten.

Mehr Informationen
Bärtiger Mann mit Headset arbeitet am Computer

Mit Netskope-Schulungen können Sie Ihre digitale Transformation absichern und das Beste aus Ihrer Cloud, dem Web und Ihren privaten Anwendungen machen.

Mehr Informationen
Gruppe junger Berufstätiger bei der Arbeit
  • Ressourcen

    Erfahren Sie mehr darüber, wie Netskope Ihnen helfen kann, Ihre Reise in die Cloud zu sichern.

  • Blog

    Erfahren Sie, wie Netskope die Sicherheits- und Netzwerktransformation durch Security Service Edge (SSE) ermöglicht.

  • Veranstaltungen& Workshops

    Bleiben Sie den neuesten Sicherheitstrends immer einen Schritt voraus und tauschen Sie sich mit Gleichgesinnten aus

  • Security Defined

    Finden Sie alles was Sie wissen müssen in unserer Cybersicherheits-Enzyklopädie.

Security Visionaries Podcast

Bonus-Episode: Die Bedeutung von Security Service Edge (SSE)

Podcast abspielen
Dunkelhäutiger Mann in einer Webkonferenz

Lesen Sie die neuesten Informationen darüber, wie Netskope die Zero Trust- und SASE-Reise durch Security Service Edge (SSE) -Funktionen ermöglichen kann.

Den Blog lesen
Sonnenaufgang und bewölkter Himmel

SASE-Week

Netskope hilft Ihnen dabei, Ihre Reise zu beginnen und herauszufinden, wo Sicherheit, Netzwerk und Zero Trust in die SASE-Welt passen.

Mehr Informationen
SASE-Week

Was ist Security Service Edge?

Entdecken Sie die Sicherheitselemente von SASE, die Zukunft des Netzwerks und der Security in der Cloud.

Mehr Informationen
Kreisverkehr mit vier Straßen
  • Unternehmen

    Wir helfen Ihnen, den Herausforderungen der Cloud-, Daten- und Netzwerksicherheit einen Schritt voraus zu sein.

  • Warum Netskope?

    Cloud-Transformation und hybrides Arbeiten haben die Art und Weise verändert, wie Sicherheit umgesetzt werden muss.

  • Unternehmensführung

    Unser Führungsteam ist fest entschlossen, alles zu tun, was nötig ist, damit unsere Kunden erfolgreich sind.

  • Partner

    Unsere Partnerschaften helfen Ihnen, Ihren Weg in die Cloud zu sichern.

Netskope ermöglicht das "neue" Arbeiten

Finde mehr heraus
Kurvige Straße durch ein Waldgebiet

Netskope definiert Cloud-, Daten- und Netzwerksicherheit neu, um Unternehmen dabei zu unterstützen, Zero-Trust-Prinzipien zum Schutz von Daten anzuwenden.

Mehr Informationen
Serpentinenstraße auf einer Klippe

Denker, Architekten, Träumer, Innovatoren. Gemeinsam liefern wir hochmoderne Cloud-Sicherheitslösungen, die unseren Kunden helfen, ihre Daten und Mitarbeiter zu schützen.

Lernen Sie unser Team kennen
Gruppe von Wanderern erklimmt einen verschneiten Berg

Die partnerorientierte Markteinführungsstrategie von Netskope ermöglicht es unseren Partnern, ihr Wachstum und ihre Rentabilität zu maximieren und gleichzeitig die Unternehmenssicherheit an neue Anforderungen anzupassen.

Mehr Informationen
Gruppe junger, lächelnder Berufstätiger mit unterschiedlicher Herkunft
Blog Plattform, Produkte,& Dienstleistungen The Cyber Kill Chain in the Age of Cloud
May 13 2019

The Cyber Kill Chain in the Age of Cloud

The cyber kill chain is used to model a cyber intrusion, identifying the different stages involved in a cyber-attack. The model is well established, but recently I have been asked multiple times to help information security teams understand the ways in which the kill chain has changed with the advent of cloud applications. In this blog post, I will summarize how I normally answer this question, showing some examples of malicious campaigns that have made use of the cloud to evade traditional security technologies.

There are multiple ways to represent the cyber kill chain but its simplest form involves seven stages.

A close up of a logo  Description automatically generated
  1. Recon: typically used in targeted attacks, in this phase the attackers gather intelligence about their victims.
  2. Weaponize: in this phase, malicious actors prepare their attack vectors (for example develop the payloads used for the attack or setup the infrastructure).
  3. Delivery: this phase is where the malicious payload is delivered to the designated victim (for example via a spear-phishing email or a drive-by campaign).
  4. Exploit: if a vulnerability is exploited to execute code on the victim’s system, it will occur in this phase.
  5. Install: the malware is installed in the compromised system
  6. Callback: once the malware is successfully installed, it will check-in to the attacker’s command and control infrastructure (from where the attackers can control the asset).
  7. Persist: in this phase, the attackers can move laterally or dig deeper into the compromised organization.

It is important to note that not all steps of the kill chain are used in every attack. The first and last stages ‘Recon’ and ‘Persist’ typically feature in targeted attacks.  Gathering intelligence about the victim’s habits and vulnerabilities is needed to tailor the attack and increase the possibilities of success, while persistence is needed to establish a deeper, consolidated relationship with the victim, enabling the malicious actor to benefit from the compromised organization for months or even years.

The duration of an attack can differ wildly depending on its nature. Opportunistic attacks must be executed quickly, and the end value to the malicious actor often hinges on the number of the victims rather than their “quality”.  However, even opportunistic attacks have been known to feature ‘Persist’, lasting for months beyond the initial incursion, for example, when a generic endpoint is enslaved by a botnet.

Exploiting Cloud Services Inside the Cyber Kill Chain

The fears of cautious security professionals are undoubtedly correct; if not correctly secured, cloud services can increase the attack surface for an organization, and at multiple phases of the kill chain.

Recon

The Recon phase can use multiple methods to gather intelligence from a victim, including research into vulnerable elements in the infrastructure or humans. The growing adoption of cloud services simply gives attackers additional entry points: malicious actors can research which cloud services are in use by their victims (for example to create fake login pages delivered via spear phishing), or scan for misconfigured or publicly accessible cloud resources that can be exploited to break into the targeted organization. They can also take advantage of sensitive information inadvertently shared in apparently innocuous cloud services.  In March it was reported that searching just 13% of all GitHub public repositories over a period of six months revealed more than 100,000 repos leaking API tokens and cryptographic keys.

Weaponize and Exploit

The Weaponize phase sees the malicious actor setting up the necessary infrastructure for their work (phishing pages, malware distribution points, exploit kit landing pages, or command and control domains). Today, these resources can easily be hosted on cloud services. It is increasingly common to see malicious campaigns distributing their payload from cloud services, and even using cloud services as a safe haven for their command and control. The reasons for this are both straightforward and familiar to the enterprise IT team; cloud services offer unmatched resiliency and availability, scalability at a manageable cost, allow the creation of resources with a single click.  

Perhaps even more importantly, cloud services are all too often not inspected or are completely allow listed by traditional technologies which cannot effectively recognize and analyze context.  Here we see the role of cloud in the Exploit phase of the Cyber Kill Chain. A context-aware system would notice data that is being dropped into an AWS or Azure instance external to the organization, but traditional security technologies cannot do this. So cybercriminals use cloud services to evade detection and remain under the radar of traditional security solutions.

Delivery

Once the malicious infrastructure has been constructed, the next logical step is the Delivery of the attack vector from the cloud. Phishing pages can now be served from the cloud, as can any other potentially malicious payloads. It is worth notice that serving phishing pages from the cloud is in fact particularly effective since the fake login page presents a legitimate certificate and a URL that sounds familiar to the user, and ultimately breaches the ‘human firewall’. A malicious payload delivered from a known cloud service has a higher probability of being executed as the user implicitly trusts the source, despite any possible pop-up warning. We have also identified campaigns abusing cloud services as redirectors to malware distribution sites used for targeted attacks.

Another way to exploit cloud services in the delivery phase is to create fake cloud application login pages (mimicking the ones used by the victims) with the purpose of luring the victims and “phishing” for their credentials, or even worse, steal their OAUTH token (something successfully engineered in both opportunistic and targeted attacks in the past).

Callback

Once the malware is installed, it needs to connect to its command and control infrastructure (Callback). Attackers can use this connection to leak information, enslave the compromised endpoint in a botnet to launch DDoS attacks or spam campaigns, or establish a foothold to move laterally and dig deeper into the victim organization. And guess what? Again, the cloud plays an important role in this phase, as the attackers can use trusted cloud services like AWS and Google Drive, as well as popular applications like Twitter or Slack, to hide the communication channel. The reason is always the same: evasion. As explained in the ‘Exploit’ phase, if an organization has already sanctioned the use of AWS or Google Drive, this traffic will usually be allowed as legacy technologies don’t have instance-awareness and therefore cannot recognize whether the connection is directed to the organization’s own instance of AWS/Drive or an instance of AWS/Drive employed by a malicious third party. In many cases, the traffic to sanctioned cloud services will not even be inspected for malware or anomalous patterns since SSL inspection is a resource-intensive task for legacy on-premise technologies, and introduces latency at levels that unacceptably impact the user experience.

Persist

The characteristics of cloud play an important role in the Persist phase too. Once they access the cloud service, directly or via a compromised endpoint, attackers can move laterally and hop across cloud services. They can not only change the configuration of critical services hosted in the cloud, escalate privileges to gain increased access, steal data and clear up their traces, but also spin up new instances for malicious purposes like cryptojacking. Stolen credentials, leaked accounts, or misconfiguration of cloud services are typical ways used by attackers to break into cloud services and move laterally.

It is of course incredibly important that we do not ring fence or separate cloud attack vectors and surfaces in our consideration of – and response to – the kill chain. An attack can use a combination of “traditional” attack vectors, such as web and email, as well as cloud services.  We use the term “Hybrid Threats” to define attacks that leverage this mixed approach to remain under the radar of traditional security solutions.

Recommendations

Only a cloud-native technology can detect and mitigate cloud-native threats. Netskope recommends the following to combat cloud-native malware and threats:

  • Perform a regular continuous security assessment of all IaaS resources to prevent misconfigurations that can be exploited by malicious actors.
  • Perform a regular DLP scan of externally shared content in sanctioned cloud applications to prevent inadvertent leakage of information that can be exploited by malicious actors.
  • Deploy a threat-aware, instance-aware, unified platform like Netskope that can assemble a more complete picture of your position, find hybrid threats and enforce usage policy for both unsanctioned services and unsanctioned instances of sanctioned cloud services.
  • Warn users to avoid executing unsigned macros and macros from an untrusted source, even if the source seems to be a legitimate cloud service.
  • Warn users to avoid executing any file unless they are very sure that they are benign.
  • Warn users against opening untrusted attachments, regardless of their extensions or filenames.
  • Keep systems and antivirus updated with the latest releases and patches.

Sample policies to enforce:

  • Scan all uploads from unmanaged devices to sanctioned cloud applications, looking for malware
  • Scan all uploads from remote devices to sanctioned cloud applications, looking for malware
  • Scan all downloads from unsanctioned cloud applications, looking for malware
  • Scan all downloads from unsanctioned instances of sanctioned cloud applications, looking for malware
  • Enforce quarantine/block actions on malware detection to reduce user impact
  • Block unsanctioned instances of sanctioned/well-known cloud apps, to prevent attackers from exploiting user trust in cloud. While this seems a little restrictive, it significantly reduces the risk of malware infiltration attempts via cloud.
author image
About the author
Paolo supports Netskope’s customers in protecting their journey to the cloud and is a security professional, with 20+ years experience in the infosec industry. He is the mastermind behind hackmageddon.com, a blog detailing timelines and statistics of all the main cyber-attacks occurred since 2011. It is the primary source of data and trends of the threat landscape for the Infosec community.
Paolo supports Netskope’s customers in protecting their journey to the cloud and is a security professional, with 20+ years experience in the infosec industry. He is the mastermind behind hackmageddon.com, a blog detailing timelines and statistics of all the main cyber-attacks occurred since 2011. It is the primary source of…