Security Defined Cybersecurity Encyclopediaゼロトラストセキュリティとは

Zero Trust Security

What is Zero Trust?

Zero trust is a security model based on the premise that no one is blindly trusted and allowed to access company assets until they have been validated as legitimate and authorized. It supports the implementation of ‘least privilege access’, which is designed to selectively grant access to only the resources that users or groups of users require, nothing more. Additionally, those who are granted access to the network, data, and other assets are continuously required to authenticate their identity

Zero trust adoption has accelerated in response to the rapid rise of mobile and remote workers, the bring your own devices (BYOD) trend, shadow IT, and the rapid rise of cloud services. While these trends benefited users and brought new levels of flexibility to IT, they also reduced the ability of the organization to control and secure access to data and network resources. Zero trust brings this control back, tightening up security in the face of a dissolving network perimeter.

Think of your network and data infrastructure as a building full of rooms with locked doors and each lock has its own individual key and you only grant users access only to the room with assets that they need and nothing else. That is zero trust in a nutshell.

what is zero trust security


Blog: ゼロ・トラストの始め方
White Paper: Zero Trust Leading Practice


 

A Brief History of Zero Trust

The term “zero trust” was coined by Forrester analyst John Kindervag in his research as he explained the importance of inherent “non-trust” when dealing with network traffic, no matter where it comes from. The concept originated as a network security term and rightfully so, since most businesses operated on their own in-house networks and data storage capacities at the time the concept originated.

However, many of the notions expressed in zero trust networking can trace their origins to a much earlier concept, put forth in 2004 by the Jericho Forum, called de-perimeterization. Perimeter security is conducted by means of firewalls and perimeter guarding for the purposes of keeping out intruders. The flaw in this strategy is the lack of safeguards once intruders are able to breach the perimeter. De-perimeterization is a security strategy of removing the standard “boundary” security separating a network from the internet and instead creating a segmented and multi-layered security system built on encryption and authentication. Zero trust architecture (ZTA) provides layered security by means of constant reauthentication and inherent distrust of all devices, users, and actions whether they exist within the perimeter or not.

 

The Future of Zero Trust

Today, zero trust has evolved to encapsulate more of a general concept than just a network specific architecture. The concept is gaining foothold among all industry players and while the two most common applications of zero trust exist in network (Zero Trust Network Access) and data (Zero Trust Data Protection) spaces, this security model is expanding into other realms, such as:

  • Zero trust workloads
  • Zero trust user bases
  • Zero trust automation
  • Zero trust devices

ゼロトラスト モデルの実現には、クラウドファーストの新しいセキュリティ考え方とアプローチが必要です。リモートワーカーの増加とクラウド環境の採用により、従来のようなネットワーク中心の戦略は、かつてサイバーセキュリティの脅威を軽減していた時ほど効果的ではありません。これらのリモートユーザーと動的なクラウド環境に対する要件を満たそうとすると、従来のセキュリティアーキテクチャでは無理があります。

企業データとリソースへのアクセスが必要なリモートワーカーの数が爆発的に増え、パブリッククラウドでホストされるプライベートアプリケーションの増加に伴い、組織は自社のセキュリティ範囲が企業の境界をはるかに超える必要があることを発見しています。つまり、従来のアクセス制御アプローチでは不十分ということになります。不正使用からデータを安全に保ったり、ますます高度化されつつある新しい脅威からユーザーやデータを保護することはできません。

幸いなことに、ゼロトラスト テクノロジーは、これらの新しい要件に対応するために成熟してきました。ゼロトラストは、基本的に「default-deny」アプローチを採用しており、アクセスを試みるすべてのユーザーとデバイスを最初に検証する必要があります。新しいクラウドベースのゼロトラストネットワークアクセスソリューションは、拡張性が高く、ユーザーはネットワークではなくアプリケーションへの安全なアクセスを提供し、機密アプリケーションやデータを侵害や悪用から効果的に保護します。

 

What are the Principles of Zero Trust?

These are the three core principles that guide the zero trust model:

 

1. Grant the Least Amount of Privileges

The base principle of zero trust centers around the idea of granting the least amount of privilege and access as possible without impacting an individual’s ability to complete their tasks. You only grant access on a case-by-case basis to exactly what is needed and nothing else.

 

2. Never Trust, Always Verify

No action or user is inherently trusted within a zero trust security model. Every new entry into a system or request for access to new data must come with some form of authentication to verify the identity of the user.

 

3. Always Monitor

Lastly, zero trust requires consistent monitoring and evaluation of user behavior, data movements, network changes, and data alterations. While authentication and privilege restrictions are the backbone of zero trust, it’s always best to verify all actions taken within your organization’s infrastructure.

 

What are the Types of Zero Trust?

Implementing a zero trust model protects private applications, sensitive data, and network assets, while drastically reducing risks from malicious insiders and compromised accounts.

There are two current and distinct applications for the zero trust model:

  • Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA)
  • Zero Trust Data Protection (ZTDP)

 

What is Zero Trust Network Access?

When designing a zero trust strategy for remote access to an environment, it is commonly referred to as Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) but is also known as a Software-Defined Perimeter (SDP). A ZTNA or SDP is a modern way to secure access to the network, which uses a cloud-first, software-based approach to replace the hardware of legacy VPNs. It creates an overlay network that securely connects users and devices over the Internet to the servers and applications they need in the data center or public cloud.

A ZTNA solution offers the following benefits:

  • リモート・ユーザー・アクセスの効果的な保護
  • 強力な認証を保証
  • 社内リソースへのアクセスに対する効果的なガバナンスの実装
  • 侵害の可能性と損害を軽減
  • コンプライアンス監査イニシアティブをサポート
  • クラウドへの移行を迅速化
  • セキュリティを変革 — ハードウェアのVPNからの脱却を実現し、ソフトウェアで定義されたソリューションへ

多くの企業組織は、ゼロトラストモデルを採用しており、増加するクラウドアプリケーションやデータサービスにアクセスできるユーザーとデバイスを可視化および制御することができます。これには、企業のエコシステム内の管理対象アプリケーションと、基幹業務および企業内の個人が勝手に使用する非管理アプリケーションの両方が含まれます。

 

What is Zero Trust Data Protection?

On the other hand, you have Zero Trust Data Protection (ZTDP), a new security framework created by Netskope which applies the core principles of zero trust when guarding your data from unauthorized viewing, movement, alteration, and exfiltration.

ZTDP benefits include:

  • Continuous risk assessment
  • Data context and sensitivity awareness, for better policy enforcement
  • Enables safe access-from-anywhere
  • Ensures data is protected everywhere
  • Adherence to current compliance standards

The addition of other tools like analytics platforms and inline visibility to cloud, web, and network usage allows these administrators to tailor their zero trust rules and prevent unauthorized lateral movement to other sets of data. All in all, Zero Trust Data Protection is a first line of defense against unauthorized data access and exfiltration.


Report: Cybersecurity Insiders – Zero Trust Report 2020
Report: 2020 Gartner Market Guide for Zero Trust Network Access


While both of these concepts utilize zero trust, ZTNA deals with applying the zero trust model strictly for the purposes of guarding network access, while ZTDP applies zero trust to the protection of access to data. In a perfect world, companies would utilize both concepts as a safeguard against network intrusions and data exfiltrations/alterations.

 

ガートナーの、ゼロトラストの予測と洞察

 

80% of new digital business applications will be accessed through ZTNA60% of enterprises will phase out most of their remote access VPNs in favor of ZTNA
 

の新しいデジタルビジネスアプリケーションのうち、ZTNAを介してアクセスされる

 

の企業がZTNAを採用し、VPNを脱却していく

出典:Gartner レポート:
The Future of Network Security is in the Cloud

 

How Does Zero Trust Fit Within the Netskope Security Infrastructure?

ゼロトラストソリューションには、多要素認証 (MFA) から ID とアクセス管理 (IAM)、暗号化、スコアリング、ファイルシステムのアクセス許可など、さまざまな機能とテクノロジが混在している必要があります。

In terms of Netskope, our Private Access solution is specifically designed to support diverse environments as a cloud-native ZTNA platform. It combines comprehensive access policy management, compliance assessment, integration with existing IAM and security information and event management (SIEM) solutions; and it supports any application, and any protocol – to simplify network and security operations.

The solution also provides extended protection through integration with the Netskope Next Generation Secure Web Gateway (NG SWG), which comprises several integrated cloud-native technologies, including an inline CASB, data loss prevention (DLP), SWG, and advanced threat protection (ATP). This allows the offering to be uniquely capable of providing unified visibility and protection of hybrid-cloud environments and enhancing latency-sensitive security functions such as DLP and ATP.

簡単に言えば、Netskope Private Accessは、あらゆるアプリケーション、あらゆる環境において、ゼロトラストアクセシビリティへの次世代のアプローチを提供します。


Data Sheet: Netskope Private Access


 

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