Netskope named a Leader in the 2022 Gartner® Magic Quadrant™ for Security Service Edge. Get the Report.

  • Platform

    Unrivaled visibility and real-time data and threat protection on the world's largest security private cloud.

  • Products

    Netskope products are built on the Netskope Security Cloud.

Netskope delivers a modern cloud security stack, with unified capabilities for data and threat protection, plus secure private access.

Explore our platform
Birds eye view metropolitan city

Netskope Named a Leader in the 2022 Gartner Magic Quadrant™ for SSE Report

Get the report Go to Products Overview
Netskope gartner mq 2022 sse leader

Make the move to market-leading cloud security services with minimal latency and high reliability.

Learn more
Lighted highway through mountainside switchbacks

Prevent threats that often evade other security solutions using a single-pass SSE framework.

Learn more
Lighting storm over metropolitan area

Zero trust solutions for SSE and SASE deployments

Learn more
Boat driving through open sea

Netskope enables a safe, cloud-smart, and fast journey to adopt cloud services, apps, and public cloud infrastructure.

Learn more
Wind turbines along cliffside
  • Customer Success

    Secure your digital transformation journey and make the most of your cloud, web, and private applications.

  • Customer Support

    Proactive support and engagement to optimize your Netskope environment and accelerate your success.

  • Training and Certification

    Netskope training will help you become a cloud security expert.

Trust Netskope to help you address evolving threats, new risks, technology shifts, organizational and network changes, and new regulatory requirements.

Learn more
Woman smiling with glasses looking out window

We have qualified engineers worldwide, with diverse backgrounds in cloud security, networking, virtualization, content delivery, and software development, ready to give you timely, high-quality technical assistance.

Learn more
Bearded man wearing headset working on computer

Secure your digital transformation journey and make the most of your cloud, web, and private applications with Netskope training.

Learn more
Group of young professionals working
  • Resources

    Learn more about how Netskope can help you secure your journey to the cloud.

  • Blog

    Learn how Netskope enables security and networking transformation through security service edge (SSE).

  • Events & Workshops

    Stay ahead of the latest security trends and connect with your peers.

  • Security Defined

    Everything you need to know in our cybersecurity encyclopedia.

Security Visionaries Podcast

Bonus Episode: The Importance of Security Service Edge (SSE)

Play the podcast
Black man sitting in conference meeting

Read the latest on how Netskope can enable the Zero Trust and SASE journey through security service edge (SSE) capabilities.

Read the blog
Sunrise and cloudy sky

Netskope CSO speaking events

Meet the Netskope CSO team at one of our upcoming events.

Find an event
Netskope CSO Team

What is Security Service Edge?

Explore the security side of SASE, the future of network and protection in the cloud.

Learn more
Four-way roundabout
  • Company

    We help you stay ahead of cloud, data, and network security challenges.

  • Why Netskope

    Cloud transformation and work from anywhere have changed how security needs to work.

  • Leadership

    Our leadership team is fiercely committed to doing everything it takes to make our customers successful.

  • Partners

    We partner with security leaders to help you secure your journey to the cloud.

Netskope enables the future of work.

Find out more
Curvy road through wooded area

Netskope is redefining cloud, data, and network security to help organizations apply Zero Trust principles to protect data.

Learn more
Switchback road atop a cliffside

Thinkers, builders, dreamers, innovators. Together, we deliver cutting-edge cloud security solutions to help our customers protect their data and people.

Meet our team
Group of hikers scaling a snowy mountain

Netskope’s partner-centric go-to-market strategy enables our partners to maximize their growth and profitability while transforming enterprise security.

Learn more
Group of diverse young professionals smiling
Blog Threat Labs GitHub Pages Spread Ramnit
Oct 04 2019

GitHub Pages Spread Ramnit

Netskope Threat Protection recently blocked several GitHub Pages sites that were infected by Ramnit. This post explores how these sites came to be infected by Ramnit and discusses the  potential reach an attacker has when they compromise a GitHub repository. 

Disclosure

Netskope reported the accounts infected with Ramnit to GitHub on 3 October 2019.

GitHub pages

GitHub Pages are public web pages usually hosted on GitHub’s github.io domain at a URL formatted ‘username.github.io’. GitHub Pages also comes with a powerful static site generator called Jekyll. Jekyll uses templates to convert markdown into static HTML content as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: GitHub pages

 Ramnit

Ramnit is a file-infector and a worm that copies itself to removable drives and infects .exe, .dll, .htm and .html files. There are also some variants of the malware family that open a back door on the compromised computer. Though the global footprint of the Ramnit botnet was dismantled in 2015, it continues to remain one of the most predominant malware due to its wormed file infector nature.

Technical Analysis

Ramnit infects .exe, .dll, .htm and .html files. If the victim of a Ramnit infection has also cloned their GitHub Pages repository, the HTML template files in the repository will also be infected. 

When Jekyll generates the HTML pages from the infected templates, the resulting webpages are also infected. As a result, each of the generated pages on the generated site  username.github.io contain multiple traces of the Ramnit infection. An excerpt of the infected code (containing an ActiveX script) is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Ramnit code appended in the infected HTML page

Upon visiting this website in Internet Explorer (ActiveX is only supported in IE), the victim is prompted with a message to enable Microsoft script Runtime ActiveX control as shown in Figure 3. 

Figure 3:  Microsoft script Runtime ActiveX control

When the script runs, it drops the Ramnit payload in the %temp% folder as svchost.exe thereby continuing its infection kill chain.

Netskope Detection

Netskope’s Next-Gen SWG detects and blocks the Ramnit infected page. Additionally, Netskope Threat protection also detects the upload and download activity of infected Ramnit HTML pages over GitHub as Trojan.Dropper.VBS.Q.

Conclusion

This post details the lateral movement of Ramnit from an infected machine to public GitHub pages. This is an interesting attack vector because: 

  • Github pages are public and therefore can infect any users on the internet
  • Github is typically part of normal business operations and repositories are typically shared among teams, which opens up opportunities for the infection to spread within an organization.

This example of Ramnit-infected HTML pages is limited in scope because it only affects IE, but it serves as an example of how any infector might spread through GitHub pages. The potential for infection could have been greater if it had been more similar to a supply chain attack —  if one of the popular Jekyll template repositories had been compromised — or if a more widely used repository was infected. A file infector with a wider scope than just targeting IE with an ActiveX script could have also spread more aggressively. To protect against attacks compromising source code on GitHub, it is very important to have the required security tooling. Netskope’s CASB can help prevent malicious code from being shared and pushed to GitHub.

Indicators of Compromise

URLs

onedayonedot[.]github.io

hashub[.]github.io

author image
About the author
Ashwin Vamshi is a Security Researcher with innate interest in targeted attacks and malwares using cloud services. He is primarily focusing in identifying new attack vectors and malwares, campaigns and threat actors using ‘cloud as an attack vector.’
Ashwin Vamshi is a Security Researcher with innate interest in targeted attacks and malwares using cloud services. He is primarily focusing in identifying new attack vectors and malwares, campaigns and threat actors using ‘cloud as an attack vector.’