Netskope named a Leader in the 2024 Gartner® Magic Quadrant™ for Security Service Edge. Get the report

  • Why Netskope chevron

    Changing the way networking and security work together.

  • Our Customers chevron

    Netskope serves more than 3,000 customers worldwide including more than 25 of the Fortune 100

  • Our Partners chevron

    We partner with security leaders to help you secure your journey to the cloud.

Still Highest in Execution.
Still Furthest in Vision.

Learn why 2024 Gartner® Magic Quadrant™ named Netskope a Leader for Security Service Edge the third consecutive year.

Get the report
Netskope Named a Leader in the 2024 Gartner® Magic Quadrant™ for Security Service Edge graphic for menu
We help our customers to be Ready for Anything

See our customers
Woman smiling with glasses looking out window
Netskope’s partner-centric go-to-market strategy enables our partners to maximize their growth and profitability while transforming enterprise security.

Learn about Netskope Partners
Group of diverse young professionals smiling
Your Network of Tomorrow

Plan your path toward a faster, more secure, and more resilient network designed for the applications and users that you support.

Get the white paper
Your Network of Tomorrow
Introducing the Netskope One Platform

Netskope One is a cloud-native platform that offers converged security and networking services to enable your SASE and zero trust transformation.

Learn about Netskope One
Abstract with blue lighting
Embrace a Secure Access Service Edge (SASE) architecture

Netskope NewEdge is the world’s largest, highest-performing security private cloud and provides customers with unparalleled service coverage, performance and resilience.

Learn about NewEdge
Netskope Cloud Exchange

The Netskope Cloud Exchange (CE) provides customers with powerful integration tools to leverage investments across their security posture.

Learn about Cloud Exchange
Netskope video
The platform of the future is Netskope

Intelligent Security Service Edge (SSE), Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB), Cloud Firewall, Next Generation Secure Web Gateway (SWG), and Private Access for ZTNA built natively into a single solution to help every business on its journey to Secure Access Service Edge (SASE) architecture.

Go to Products Overview
Netskope video
Next Gen SASE Branch is hybrid — connected, secured, and automated

Netskope Next Gen SASE Branch converges Context-Aware SASE Fabric, Zero-Trust Hybrid Security, and SkopeAI-powered Cloud Orchestrator into a unified cloud offering, ushering in a fully modernized branch experience for the borderless enterprise.

Learn about Next Gen SASE Branch
People at the open space office
Designing a SASE Architecture For Dummies

Get your complimentary copy of the only guide to SASE design you’ll ever need.

Get the eBook
Make the move to market-leading cloud security services with minimal latency and high reliability.

Learn about NewEdge
Lighted highway through mountainside switchbacks
Safely enable the use of generative AI applications with application access control, real-time user coaching, and best-in-class data protection.

Learn how we secure generative AI use
Safely Enable ChatGPT and Generative AI
Zero trust solutions for SSE and SASE deployments

Learn about Zero Trust
Boat driving through open sea
Netskope achieves FedRAMP High Authorization

Choose Netskope GovCloud to accelerate your agency’s transformation.

Learn about Netskope GovCloud
Netskope GovCloud
  • Resources chevron

    Learn more about how Netskope can help you secure your journey to the cloud.

  • Blog chevron

    Learn how Netskope enables security and networking transformation through security service edge (SSE)

  • Events and Workshops chevron

    Stay ahead of the latest security trends and connect with your peers.

  • Security Defined chevron

    Everything you need to know in our cybersecurity encyclopedia.

Security Visionaries Podcast

On Patents, Trolls, and Innovation
In this episode host Emily Wearmouth chats with Suzanne Oliver, an intellectual property expert, and Krishna Narayanaswamy, co-founder and CTO of Netskope, about the world of patents.

Play the podcast
On Patents, Trolls, and Innovation
Latest Blogs

Read how Netskope can enable the Zero Trust and SASE journey through security service edge (SSE) capabilities.

Read the blog
Sunrise and cloudy sky
SASE Week 2023: Your SASE journey starts now!

Replay sessions from the fourth annual SASE Week.

Explore sessions
SASE Week 2023
What is Security Service Edge?

Explore the security side of SASE, the future of network and protection in the cloud.

Learn about Security Service Edge
Four-way roundabout
  • Company chevron

    We help you stay ahead of cloud, data, and network security challenges.

  • Leadership chevron

    Our leadership team is fiercely committed to doing everything it takes to make our customers successful.

  • Customer Solutions chevron

    We are here for you and with you every step of the way, ensuring your success with Netskope.

  • Training and Certification chevron

    Netskope training will help you become a cloud security expert.

Supporting sustainability through data security

Netskope is proud to participate in Vision 2045: an initiative aimed to raise awareness on private industry’s role in sustainability.

Find out more
Supporting Sustainability Through Data Security
Thinkers, builders, dreamers, innovators. Together, we deliver cutting-edge cloud security solutions to help our customers protect their data and people.

Meet our team
Group of hikers scaling a snowy mountain
Netskope’s talented and experienced Professional Services team provides a prescriptive approach to your successful implementation.

Learn about Professional Services
Netskope Professional Services
Secure your digital transformation journey and make the most of your cloud, web, and private applications with Netskope training.

Learn about Training and Certifications
Group of young professionals working

DBatLoader: Abusing Discord to Deliver Warzone RAT

Oct 21 2021


67% of the malware downloads Netskope blocks come from popular cloud applications being abused by attackers. One of the services commonly abused by threat actors is Discord, which is abused to host malware such as TroubleGrabber using public attachment URLs.

In this blog post, we will analyze a recent DBatLoader (a.k.a. ModiLoader) sample that uses this technique on Discord to deliver a malware known as Warzone (a.k.a. Ave Maria), a Remote Access Trojan created in 2018. 

This malware is actively being sold on the internet, through a dedicated website:

Screenshot of Warzone RAT website
Warzone RAT website.

It offers a long list of capabilities, such as:

  • Remote Desktop
  • WebCam Live Stream
  • Download/Upload Files
  • Password Grabber (Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Edge, Outlook, etc.)
  • Offline/Online Keylogger
Listing of Warzone features, according to their website.
Warzone features, according to their website.

The malware is being sold under many prices, depending on the selected plan:

Screenshot of Warzone RAT prices.
Warzone RAT prices.

The website even includes a knowledge base that contains information about the usage of Warzone RAT.

Screenshot of Warzone RAT knowledge base.
Warzone RAT knowledge base.


It all starts with the first stage of DBatLoader, which is known for abusing cloud services, like Google Drive and Discord, to retrieve its second stage, both of which are developed in Delphi.

Screenshot of the first stage of DBatLoader.
First stage of DBatLoader.

The sample is signed with a revoked certificate from “Afia Wave Enterprises”.

Screenshot of DBatLoader digital signature.
DBatLoader digital signature.

Once running, the malware allocates and executes a shellcode, which is responsible for downloading the second stage.

Screenshot showing DBatLoader shellcode.
DBatLoader shellcode.

Later, the second stage is downloaded from Discord, which is eventually decrypted and executed in memory.

Screenshot showing DBatLoader downloading its second stage from Discord.
DBatLoader downloading its second stage from Discord.

Looking at the decrypted file strings, we can see references to a few batch scripts that are usually created and executed by this malware to accomplish small tasks, like disabling Windows Defender. However, this sample doesn’t contain the routines to run these files.

Screenshot showing strings related to batch scripts.
Strings related to batch scripts.

The loader then copies itself to “%AppData%” as “windows explorer.exe” and creates a very simple persistence technique through Windows Registry.

Screenshot of DBatLoader persistence mechanism.
DBatLoader persistence mechanism.

The final payload is encrypted and stored in DBatLoader’s resources, named “YAK”.

Screenshot of Warzone RAT encrypted payload.
Warzone RAT encrypted payload.

After decrypting these bytes, the payload is executed using a technique known as Process Hollowing. Simply put, the code is injected through the following steps:

  1. The target process is created in a suspended state with CreateProcessA;
  2. The original process’ code section is removed with NtUnmapViewOfSection;
  3. New space is allocated in the process with VirtualAllocEx;
  4. The malicious code is written using WriteProcessMemory;
  5. Finally, the code is resumed with SetThreatContext and ResumeThread.
Screenshot of Warzone RAT being injected through Process Hollowing.
Warzone RAT being injected through Process Hollowing.

This is a very common process injection technique, used by many malware such as Astaroth, Cobalt Strike, and Trickbot. After injecting Warzone RAT, DBatLoader exits the process without further actions. 

The final payload can be dumped from memory using a debugger or the pe-sieve tool.

Screenshot of Warzone RAT strings.
Warzone RAT strings.

As we mentioned earlier in this blog post, Warzone provides full access to the infected machine and is also able to steal passwords from many browsers and email clients.

Screenshot of part of the Warzone RAT function that grabs passwords from browsers.
Part of the Warzone RAT function that grabs passwords from browsers.

The malware communicates to its C2 server via TCP using sockets, through the port 1990 in this case.

Screenshot of Warzone RAT C2 communication.
Warzone RAT C2 communication.

This information is encrypted and stored within the PE file in a section named “.bss”. The first 4 bytes of the section are the key length, followed by the key and the encrypted data.

Screenshot of Warzone RAT encrypted configuration.
Warzone RAT encrypted configuration.

The data is encrypted with RC4 and, once we understood this structure, we created a python script that is able to parse and decrypt the C2 address from Warzone.

Screenshot of decrypted data from Warzone.
Decrypted data from Warzone.


Using Discord to host malicious payloads isn’t something new, as we saw in TroubleGrabber in 2020. However, we should expect more malware to abuse not only Discord but other cloud services as well, as it can be more reliable and harder to detect. Netskope is actively monitoring attackers abusing cloud apps for malware delivery.


Netskope Threat Labs is actively monitoring this campaign and has ensured coverage for all known threat indicators and payloads. 

  • Netskope Threat Protection
    • Win32.Trojan.Modiloader
    • Win32.Trojan.WarzoneRAT
  • Netskope Advanced Threat Protection provides proactive coverage against this threat.
    • Gen.Malware.Detect.By.StHeur indicates a sample that was detected using static analysis
    • Gen.Malware.Detect.By.Sandbox indicates a sample that was detected by our cloud sandbox


SHA256 Hashes

DBatLoader First Stage07915b1a44803fc9bd86d2d9ddad19434440b3d73f5c77f3400c84a935dd0255
DBatLoader Second Stage8f1d0ba030b897786c9ad6b68bb9165e539371648a8a60e2a6f1136647b5104e
Warzone RATe89c137a4faa31d639492b045a78dd115468f9191143c302d165aefe85b3c06a

The full list of IOCs, the script that decrypts Warzone configuration, and a Yara rule can be found in our Github repository.

author image
Gustavo Palazolo
Gustavo Palazolo is an expert in malware analysis, reverse engineering and security research, working many years in projects related to electronic fraud protection. He is currently working on the Netskope Research Team, discovering and analyzing new malware threats.

Stay informed!

Subscribe for the latest from the Netskope Blog